Technology Encyclopedia

Technology Encyclopedia

If you would like to prepare for school subjects or simply increase your general knowledge, then enjoy our technology encyclopedia. We tried to focus only on very important terms and definitions. We also kept our terminology very brief so that you absorb the concept more quickly and easily.

Technology Glossary (Page 1)


A* OR A: Star Refers to a popular implementation of a Best First search algorithm.
ABRAHAM DEMOIVRE: See demoivre, Abraham.
ABSOLUTE ADDRESS: Refers to the actual location of data in its storage medium.
ABSOLUTE ZERO: The temperature where atomic motion ceases.
ABSTRACT DATA TYPE: A structure that encapsulates data and functions.
AC: Refers to Alternating Current.
ACCA: Refers to Automatic Cloud Cover Assessment.
ACCEPTABLE USE POLICY (AUP): This is a policy set up by the network administrator or other school leaders in conjunction with their technology needs and safety concerns. This policy restricts the manner in which a network may be used, and helps provide guidelines for teachers using technology in the classroom.
ACCESS: Refers to the ability to aquire, read, or write. There may be varying levels of access. May also refer to the method that data is aquired. See sequential and random access.
ACCESS TIME: Refers to the amount of time taken to begin aquiring data.
ACCUMULATOR: Refers to a register unit used to store the results of logic or arthmatic operations.
ACCURACY: Refers to a measurement of the average correctness of data or an equation. See variance.
ACK OR ACK: Refers to acknowledgement.
ACQUISITION OF SIGNAL: Refers to the time at which a radio or microwave signal is first received from a satellite. In most cases this happens the instance after it rises over the horizon.
ACTION: Refers to the activity resulting from a given a condition in a decision table.
ACTION ENTRY: Refers to a designation in a decision table of an action that results for a particular condition.
ACTION STUB: Refers to a entry in a decision table signifying the form of action that may occur.
ACTIVE CHANNEL: Refers to a data line which is in use or has a live stream.
ACTIVE DOCUMENT: A document that employs technologies such as DHTML, javascript, visual basicscript or CSS. Once an active document is downloaded it is run by the client's browser program.
ACTIVE MATRIX DISPLAY: Refers to a type of LCD that uses thin film transitors for monitors. Here, each transitor can be turned on or off.
ACU: See Accumulator.
AD: Hoc Group Refers to a comittee formed for one specific purpose.
ADA: A language descended from Pascal.
ADDER: A register that sums two numbers. There are many different variations; a few examples are full, ripple carry, skip carry and select adders.
ADDRESS: Refers to a location in a storage medium. Addresses most frequently refer to a locations in RAM.
ADDRESS FORMAT: Refers to the specifications used to describe a memory location.
ADDRESS MODIFICATION: Refers to the changing of an address of an instruction word during multi itterative or recursive loops.
ADDRESS REGISTER: A group of flip flops capable of storing a memory address and gates capable of storing a memory address.
ADP: Refers to Automatic Data Processing or Automated Data Processing.
ADSL: An Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).
ADT: See Abstract Data Type. ADT may also refer to Advanced Data Type.
ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY: See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY NETWORK: Refers to a network developed in the late 1960s by the United States Department of Defense as an experiment in wide area networking that would survive a large scale war. Originally it was used mainly for email. Since then it has grown into what is now known as the internet. See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
AGE: Refers to Aerospace Ground Equipment.
AGENT: Refers to an intelligent or semi intelligent automation.
AHG: Refers to an Ad Hoc Group.
AI: Refers to Artificial Intelligence.
ALBERT EINSTIEN: A scientist famed for his theory of general relativity and his studies of nuclear physics.
ALIAS: A file that points to another item, such as a program, document, folder, or disk. When an alias is opened, the original item that the alias points to is opened. This helps in the organizing and accessing of files. Alias is purely a Mac term. The equivalent term for Windows-based computers is a shortcut.
ALPHANUMERIC: Refers to a character within the Alphanumeric Character Set.
ALPHANUMERIC CHARACTER SET: A set of symbols from to the standard alphabet, A Z, and the digits 0 through 9. Mathematical operators such as +, ,/,punctuations and other symbols are excluded from this set.
ALU: See Arithmetic Logic Unit.
AM: Refers to Amplitude Modulation.
AMBEGAOKAR: Baratoff Formula Is an equation that infers the critical supercurrent of a current biased junction is inversely proportional to the normal state resistance of that junction.
AMI: Refers to Access Method Interface or an Active Microwave Instrument.
AND: Refers to a logical condition that describes two statements which are both true.
ANOMALISTIC PERIOD: The time elapsed between two successive perigees of a satellite orbit.
ANONYMIZER OR ANONYMOUS SERVICE: An application which masks or cloaks the identity of the visitor.
ANSI: The American National Standards Institute.
AOS: Refers to Acquisition of Signal.
API, APIS: Are Application Programming Interfaces.
APOGEE: The point in a satellite's orbit where it is at its greatest distance from its body of rotation.
APPLET: A program designed to be executed from within another application.
APPLET OR APPLETS: Refer to Java programs which are embedded in web pages.
APPLICATION: Computer software; also called a program. There are many types of software that fit into the category of application. Application software is distinct from other forms of software, such as operating system and utility software.*.
APPLICATION PROGRAM: Software which performs a specific task or function. Examples are spreadsheets, word processing, graphics, and sound. Application programs differ from Operating Systems or Utility software programs which tend to be broader in scope.
APPROX: Refers to approximately or is an approximation.
ARG: Refers to a single argument.
ARGS: Refer to multiple arguments.
ARGUMENTS: Refers to the variables passed to a process. Arguments are often stored in a global program array.
ARIN: The American Registry of Internet Numbers.
ARITHMETIC LOGIC UNIT: Refers to a device used for logical and arithmetic operations within a computer.
ARP: The Address Resolution Protocol. It is used to map an IP address to a physical hardware (MAC) address.
ARPA: See Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
ARPANET: See Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.
ARRAY: A grouping of similar types of data, referenced as sequential locations. The absolute locations of items in an array may not truely be sequential in a managed memory enviroment. Some different types are strings and multidimensional arrays.
ARS CONJECTANDI: See Jakob Bernoulli.
ASCENDING NODE: Refers to the sub satellite point of a pass where the satellite crosses the equator from the Southern Hemisphere into the Northern Hemisphere.
ASCII: Refers to the American Standard Code for Information Interchange Association. ASCII is also used to describe documents using the plain text format. When transferring files in ASCII mode only the first 7 bits of each byte are sent; in some circumstances the eighth bit may be used for error detection.
ASK: Refers to Amplitude shift Keying.
ASM OR ASM: Refers to the assembly language or code pertaining to the assembly language. May also refer to the assembler.
ASNS: Are Autonomous System Numbers.
ASP: Refer to Active Server Page or Active Server Pages.
ASSEMBLER OR ASSEMBLER: Refers to the complier and or the linker of assembly language code.
ASSEMBLY OR ASSEMBLY: One of the most simple computer languages. It is compiled by an assembler.
ASSOCIATION OF LISP USERS: A group that promotes the List Processing language, and keeps LISP programmers informed and up to date.
ATC: Refers to Absolute Time Command.
ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode. It often refers to networks.
ATS: Refers to Absolute Time Sequence.
AUI: Attachment Unit Interface. It refers to the type of connector used with THICK ethernet wire. These type of connections are typically between a computer and an ethernet tranceiver.
AUTHENTICATION: This security measure is the process of determining whether someone is who they say they are. On campus, a common method of authentication is the login ID and Kerberos password.
AUTOEXEC.BAT OR AUTOEXEC.BAT FILE: A text file which contains commands which run after the config.sys file. The AUTOEXEC.BAT file is not necessary to boot MS DOS.
AUTOMATIC DATA PROCESSING: Refers to computer aided storing, manipulating or processing of information, requiring minimal or no human interaction.
AUTOMATIC PROGRAMMING: See Rapid Application Developement.
AUTOMATION: A self controlling or self moving processes.
AVATAR: A graphical icon that represents a real person in a cyberspace system. In e-learning, avatars usually represent the learners. The term comes from a Sanskrit word meaning an incarnation in human form.
AWK: Refers to an interpreted langauge written by Alfred Aho, Peter Weinberger, and Brian Kernighan in 1978. It is mainly used for manipulating text data.
B8ZS: Refers to Bipolar 8 Zero Substitution.
BACKTRACKING: A method for reaching a series of sub goals. Each sub goal may have multiple solutions and the solution chosen for each sub goal may affect the choice of solutions for later goals.
BACKUP: Refers to a copy of a program, file, or data base. It also refers to the process of producing a copy.
BACKUS: Naur Form Is a way of representing a language and its grammar. A BNF grammar consists of production rules. These rules themselves are made up of terminal and non terminal symbols. These are used to generate sentences.
BANDWIDTH: A measurement of the capacity of a transmission system. It is typically measured in Hertz.
BARREL SHIFTERS: Refers to hardware devices that can rotate a word by any number of bits in a single operation.
BASE: Refers to the beginning of a sequence or the radix of a number.
BASE ADDRESS: Refers to the genesis address for a sequence. A base address may refer to the zero point on a stack.
BASH: The Bourne Again Shell. Works with the unix sh but provides for many enhancements found in the C and Korne Shells.
BAT OR BAT: Refers to Batch.
BATCH FILE: An ASCII text file which contains a series of commands. These commands run sequentially.
BAUD RATE: Refers to the speed of data transmission.
BCC: A Binary Coded Character.

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